Posters

Wednesday, 16:30-19:00

Room: Pjerrot & Foyer

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Full list of presented posters.

  • Clauirton Siebra (Federal University of Paraiba, Brazil), Tatiana Bittencourt Gouveia (Federal University of Paraiba, Brazil), Marcelo Penha (UFPE, Brazil), Walter Correia (UFPE, Brazil), Anderson de Souza Neves Filho (Federal University of Paraiba, Brazil), Marcelo Anjos (Samsung, Brazil), Fabiana Florentin (SIDI, Brazil), Fabio da Silva (Federal University of Paraiba, Brazil), Andre Santos (UFPE, Brazil)
  • Accessibility Devices for Mobile Interfaces Extensions: A Survey
    • The development of mobile applications that consider accessibility can uniquely make use of software extensions to provide special interfaces to people with impairments. However, such extensions are limited so that the use of external devices is a natural alternative to provide more appropriate interfaces and applications. In order, the current market provides several accessibility devices that can be coupled to mobile devices, extending their interface abilities. However, there is not a work that compares such devices and assists the job of developers in finding an adequate device in accordance with their needs. Considering this scenario, this paper analyzed 60 scientific articles and over 250 relevant sites to identify devices that facilitate the use of applications running on mobile operating systems for impaired people. At the final of the process, 15 products were analyzed and compared against pre-defined features. Apart the number of existing devices for accessibility, it is possible to conclude that the market is still requiring a higher variety of options and further researches to provide a better level of accessibility for impaired users.
  • Tilo Westermann (Telekom Innovation Laboratories, TU Berlin, Germany), Ina Wechsung (Telekom Innovation Laboratories, TU Berlin, Germany), Sebastian Möller (Telekom Innovation Laboratories, TU Berlin, Germany)
  • Assessing the relationship between technical affinity, stress and notifications on smartphones.
    • Smartphones have become an indispensable part of everyday life. By this time, push notifications are at the core of many apps, proactively pushing new content to users. These notifications may raise awareness, but also have the downside of being disruptive. In this paper we present a laboratory study with 50 participants investigating how users deal with notification settings on their smartphones. Permission requests for sending push notifications on iOS don't inform the user about the nature of notifications of this app, leaving the user to make a rather uninformed choice on whether to accept or deny. We show that requests including explanations are significantly more likely to be accepted. Our results further indicate that apart from being disruptive, notifications may create stress due to information overload. Notification settings, once assigned a preset, are rarely changed, although not necessarily matching the favored one.
  • Abhishek Chakraborty (IIT Bombay, India), Akshay Hargude (IIT Bombay, India)
  • Dabbawala: Introducing Technology to the Dabbawalas of Mumbai
    • The dabbawalas (tiffin carriers) of Mumbai are a unique community of around five thousand people who efficiently serve up to 2 lac (0.2 million) customers every day. They have been delivering daily lunches from homes to offices for over a century and any kind of error in their delivery process is almost negligible. They have maintained their heritage working process since the inception of the service and therefore any kind of technology has not been incorporated in their work. They are currently facing numerous business sustainability challenges such as reaching out to new customers and also in maintaining their existing customer base. In 8-10 years, the number of customers a dabbawala serves a day has reduced from 50 to around 20 now. Bachelor employees working for MNCs rarely rely on home cooked food and thus don't employ their services. Rise of fast food centres and variety of food in office canteen have only added to their problems. Through our research we have understood that they might lose their current customer base soon as similar food delivery businesses with faster and better services are continuously emerging. To empower them we introduce Dabbawala — a mobile application that enables partnership between dabbawalas and food services around the city and directly connects them to their combined customer base. This application enables the customers to order lunch from anywhere from the city. Customer registrations and any kind of money transactions are all handled through the application. The application is also used within the Dabbawala community to manage teams and responsibilities.
  • Je Seok Lee (University of Michigan, USA), Heeryung Choi (Seoul National University, Republic of Korea), Joonhwan Lee (Seoul National University, Republic of Korea)
  • TalkingCane: Designing Interactive White Cane for Visually Impaired People's Bus Usage
  • Je Seok Lee (University of Michigan, USA), Shuang Liang (University of Michigan, USA), Sangeun Park (University of Michigan, USA), Chang Yan (University of Michigan, USA)
  • Hi Grandpa!: A Communication Tool Connecting Grandparents and Grandchildren Living Apart
    • Communication between Asian grandparents and their overseas grandchildren has been impeded by imbalance of technology adaptation. We used a combined method of user research, survey and user-centered design of to solve this problem. Considering user experience of two different end-user of this interaction process, we designed a digital post-box connected with a mobile application as final design. We want to not only increase their communication frequency, but also realize crossing between traditional media with current technology, as well as their different culture.
  • Ashwag Alasmari (University of Maryland Baltimore County , USA), Lina Zhou (University of Maryland Baltimore County, USA), Dongsong Zhang (University of Maryland Baltimore County, USA)
  • Improving Mobile Web Search by Clustering and Visualizing Search Engine Results
    • The search engine makes vast amounts of information available to mobile users. Despite increasing use of mobile search engines, the mobile web search remains ineffective mainly due to the intensive scrolling inherent in the current presentation of search engine results (SERs) on the small screen of handheld devices. In this study, we proposed to improve the presentation of mobile SERs through clustering and visualization. Based on the cognitive load theory and information foraging theory, we proposed hypotheses about the possible effects of visualization and synchronous presentation of clusters of SERs on user search performance and perception. To test the hypotheses, we implemented five mobile web search systems, and evaluated the systems by conducting user studies.
  • Minseok Kim (Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Republic of Korea), JungKih Hong (Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Republic of Korea), Scott Song (Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Republic of Korea)
  • Inter-Device Communication with Interactive Sharing Service
    • Today, communication technology is accelerating development of network-connected services. As we observed for the past decades years, communication devices, communication network, and software have been developed and advanced to help people to communicate by putting more choices and more functions in front of us [1]. But for developers, device management is becoming more complex. There are various network services to be handled such as 3G, Wi-Fi or Wi-Fi Direct but data transfer APIs provided by different operation systems have many inconvenient constraints to use in a service. \ ISP (Interaction Sharing Platform) is a middleware network framework to overcome difficult network communications. ISP facilitates communications between devices in a network through Device management, Connection management and several other components.
  • Toshiyuki Hagiya (KDDI R&D Laboratories, Inc., Fujimino-shi, Japan), Toshiharu Horiuchi (Doshisha University, Japan), Tomonori Yazaki (Doshisha University, Japan), Tsuneo Kato (Doshisha University, Japan)
  • Typing Tutor: Automatic Error Detection and Instruction in Text Entry for Elderly People
    • Smartphones offer new opportunities to improve the lives of elderly people. \ Although many elderly people are interested in smartphones, most of them face difficulties in self-instruction and need support. \ Text entry, which is essential for various applications, is one of the most difficult operations to master. \ Accordingly, we propose an automated tutoring system for text entry that can perform the role of a human tutor by detecting errors and providing the instructions to resolve the errors. \ We created a prototype of the system based on the operational errors observed in a user study. \ An evaluation with novice elderly people (60+) showed that the tutoring system increased typing speed by 17.2% and reduced error incidence by 59.1% compared \ with users' initial rate. \ The improvement rates were almost same as that of human tutors.
  • Abdallah El Ali (University of Oldenburg , Germany), Hamed Ketabdar (Quality and Usability Lab, Deutsche Telekom Laboratories, Germany)
  • Investigating Handedness in Air Signatures for Magnetic 3D Gestural User Authentication
    • Balancing the usability and security tradeoff in user authentication is essential to the adoption of any authentication method. Magnet-based Around Device Interaction (ADI), in allowing 3D gestural signatures around the device, has been shown to be a secure method for user authentication. In this paper, we further verify the usability and security of this method against video-based shoulder surfing attacks, and test the hypothesis that 2-handed gestural signatures could provide an additional layer of security. Our results showed that while 1-handed signatures are both secure and usable, 2-handed input provides a poor tradeoff between usability and security. We discuss the role of 2-handed gestural input for user authentication on mobile devices.
  • Per Nielsen (Aalborg University, Denmark), Jeni Paay (Aalborg University, Denmark) , Jon Pearce (The University of Melbourne, Australia), Jesper Kjeldskov (Aalborg University, Denmark)
  • Exploring Urban Events with Transitory Search on Mobiles
    • Searching for unknown urban events in the hope of making serendipitous discoveries has been the focus of multiple mobile tourist guide and recommender systems. This study investigates how transitory search can be used as an interaction mechanism for making such discoveries on a mobile phone. Our prototype, onMelbourne, returns a changing collection of urban events within physical and temporal proximity based on the setting and adjustment of search sliders by the user. Laboratory tests with 5 participants show that users understand transitory search for urban events and do make serendipitous discoveries. In addition we found that users fear missing out on events not shown by the system, and that the choice of labels on sliders impacts their understanding of a slider set halfway. The contribution of the paper is a better understanding of how transitory search can facilitate explorative behaviour when browsing for urban events on mobiles.
  • Steve Szigeti (OCAD University, Canada), David Schnitman (OCAD University, Canada), Jessica Peter (OCAD University, Canada), Ha Phuong Vu Vu (OCAD University, Canada), Sara Diamond (OCAD University, Canada)
  • Infinite Canvas: A Novel Presentation of Newspaper Search Results on a Tablet
    • Searching for unknown urban events in the hope of making serendipitous discoveries has been the focus of multiple mobile tourist guide and recommender systems. This study investigates how transitory search can be used as an interaction mechanism for making such discoveries on a mobile phone. Our prototype, onMelbourne, returns a changing collection of urban events within physical and temporal proximity based on the setting and adjustment of search sliders by the user. Laboratory tests with 5 participants show that users understand transitory search for urban events and do make serendipitous discoveries. In addition we found that users fear missing out on events not shown by the system, and that the choice of labels on sliders impacts their understanding of a slider set halfway. The contribution of the paper is a better understanding of how transitory search can facilitate explorative behaviour when browsing for urban events on mobiles.
  • André Sydow (Volkswagen AG, Germany), Jan-Frederik Kassel (Leibniz University Hannover, Germany), Michael Rohs (Leibniz University Hannover, Germany)
  • Visualizing Scheduling: A Hierarchical Event-Based Approach on a Tablet
    • The amount of logistical data in the automotive industry drastically increases due to digitalization and data that is automatically generated due to Auto-ID-Technologies. However, new methods need to be devised to make sense of this data, in particular when users are mobile, and when users need to collaborate to solve complex logistical tasks, such as resource scheduling. We propose a visualization method for hierarchical event data that is designed for tablets. The main design goals have been to foster collaboration and enable mobility. Our think aloud user study shows that both the event recognition and understanding of the participants improved with the proposed solution.
  • Adrian Holzer (EPFL, Switzerland) , Samuel Bendahan (University of Lausanne, Switzerland), Sten Govaerts (EPFL, Switzerland), Denis Gillet (EPFL, Switzerland)
  • Towards Mobile Blended Interaction Fostering Critical Thinking
    • Critical thinking is a fundamental skill that all citizens in a functioning democracy should have. Unfortunately, while beliefs in unfounded claims are pervasive, teaching critical skill is a streneous task. Design mobile interaction could potentially support face-to-face teaching to foster critical thinking skills. In this research-in-progress we present a preliminary version of the BaloneyMeter, a mobile app that provides support for teaching critical thinking skills. We report on a case study in a class of 150 students and present an open research question that we plan to address in subsequent work.
  • Iván Durango Blanco (University of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain), Alicia Carrascosa del Pozo (University of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain), Victor Manuel Ruiz Penichet (University of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain), Jose A. Gallud (University of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain)
  • Using Serious Games to Improve Therapeutic Goals in Children with Special Needs
    • This paper describes the findings of comparative experimental research on how children with different types of disabilities or problems (such as: Down syndrome, Attention difficulties, Premature birth and so on) can benefit from the use of interactive systems to support them in their therapeutic experiences. The results suggest the advantages of using a digital rather than physical game to improve attention in children with special needs.
  • Shue Ching Chia (A*STAR, Singapore) , Bappaditya Mandal (A*STAR, Singapore), Qianli Xu (A*STAR, Singapore), Liyuan Li (A*STAR, Singapore), Joo Hwee Lim (A*STAR, Singapore)
  • Enhancing Social Interaction with Seamless Face Recognition on Google Glass - Leveraging opportunistic multi-tasking on smart phones
    • Wearable devices offer immense opportunities in both consumer and enterprise domains due to the hands-free interaction modality and the ability to provide information in real-time. However, due to hardware limitations, it presents a notable challenge to complex applications that have stringent demands on computational efficiency. Leveraging on the computing power of a connected mobile device, we propose a new multi-threaded asynchronous structure to implement opportunistic multi-tasking. We demonstrate an application of the structure for seamless face recognition for social interactions. The experimental studies show that the proposed structure can achieve better performance than a sequential synchronous one. The proposed method can be extended to similar applications in wearable devices.
  • Anton Fedosov (Université  della Svizzera italiana, Switzerland) , Marc Langheinrich (Université  della Svizzera italiana, Switzerland)
  • From Start to Finish: Understanding Group Sharing Behavior in a Backcountry Skiing Community
    • The availability of contextually relevant information is often safety-critical while practicing extreme outdoor sports. Off-piste skiing is not an exception. This activity requires group communication and information sharing before, during, and after each descent. We are reporting on the results of an exploratory research study that we conducted with an experienced group of seven backcountry skiers. Using grounded theory methods to evaluate data from participants, we discovered that "Sharing" is one of the key pillars contributing to a positive skiing experience. This poster describes current information sharing practices that emerged from the data analysis. We also present several design ideas from our participants for mobile and wearable devices / services to assist backcountry winter activities in the stages of planning, execution and follow-up.
  • Charlotte Magnusson (Lund University, Sweden), Hector Caltenco (Lund University, Sweden), Sara Finocchietti (Italian Institute of Technology, Italy) , Giulia Cappagli (Italian Institute of Technology, Italy), Graham Wilson (University of Glasgow, UK), Monica Gori (Italian Institute of Technology, Italy)
  • What do you like? Early Design Explorations of Sound and Haptic Preferences
    • This study is done within the framework of a project aimed at developing a wearable device (a bracelet) intended to support sensory motor rehabilitation of children with visual impairments. We present an exploratory study of aesthetic/hedonistic preferences for sounds and touch experiences among visually impaired children. The work is done in a participatory setting, and we have used mixed methods (questionnaires, workshop and field trial using a mobile location based app for story creation) in order to get a more complete initial picture of how enjoyable training devices should be designed for our target users.
  • Jonathan Day (City University London, UK), George Buchanan (City University London, UK), Stephann Makri (City University London, UK)
  • Lessons from Mobile Users: Resilience Strategies and Behaviors
    • The challenges and complexities that arise as a consequence of taking HCI mobile are widely recognized. However one topic that has seen less investigation is the resultant resilience strategies that users develop and deploy to mitigate threats or challenges, and achieve improved performance or efficiency. In this work, we discuss how the study of mobile HCI can potentially stand to both benefit from, but also inform the broader study of resilience strategies. We further discuss current efforts to bring insight to our work through the implementation of a mobile app to collect users’ accounts and episodes of resilience strategy use.
  • Larissa Torremante (Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany), Jörg Heinze (Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany), Antonia Köster (Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany)
  • Mobile Recommender Systems: Trust and Context-Awareness
    • The adoption of mobile commerce in service industries is lacking behind expectations. One reason is the miss-ing trust of consumers in mobile devices as a shopping platform. We investigated the impact of three types of recommender systems on consumers´ trusting beliefs and purchase intention by varying the level of social presence in recommender systems. Additionally, we accounted for the importance of context-sensitive ser-vices in m-commerce by examining, whether different usage contexts yield preferences for a certain level of social presence in a recommender system. Our findings suggest that different types of recommender systems vary in their impact on trusting beliefs. Furthermore, the usage of recommender systems is more likely to translate into purchase intentions in high-risk situa-tions. In high-risk situations, low levels of social pres-ence in recommender systems are important whereas in low-risk situations, high levels of social presence are preferred. Limitations and future implications for theory and practice are discussed.
  • Alan Wecker (University of Haifa, Israel), Joel Lanir (University of Haifa, Israel), Tsvi Kuflik (University of Haifa, Israel)
  • Where To Go And How To Get There: Guidelines For Indoor Landmark-Based Navigation In A Museum Context
    • Technology-supported indoor navigation is not simple; there are many technological challenges as well as UI challenges that need to be addressed. In this paper, we describe an indoor navigation system that supports visitors in a cultural Heritage (CH) setting. The system was developed to provide a user-friendly tool for route navigation, based on photo landmarks. In developing our artifact, a framework of the information needed to support navigation in the CH environment was created. Maps, landmarks and contextual information are used in order to navigate. In addition the system supports visitors who meander off the path while navigating. A set of user interface guidelines for designing a navigation system in a CH setting has been developed based on our experience and current best practices
  • Andreas Komninos (University of Strathclyde, UK), Emma Nicol (University of Strathclyde, UK), Mark Dunlop (University of Strathclyde, UK)
  • Designed with Older Adults to Support Better Error Correction in SmartPhone Text Entry: The MaxieKeyboard
    • Through our participatory design with older adults a theme of error support for texting on smartphones emerged. Here we present the MaxieKeyboard based on the outcomes from this process. The keyboard highlights errors, autocorrections and suggestion bar usage in the composition area and gives feedback on the keyboard on typing correctness. Our older adults groups have shown strong support for the keyboard.
  • Hyunjin Yoo (Seoul National University, Republic of Korea), Jungwon Yoon (Seoul National University, Republic of Korea), Hyunsoo Ji (Seoul National University, Republic of Korea)
  • Index Finger Zone: Study on Touchable Area Expandability Using Thumb and Index Finger
    • This paper is an exploratory study to investigate how the touchable area on the front screen of a smartphone could be extended by utilizing the back side of the phone with an index finger. Recently released smartphones have larger screens than before, causing many problems related to touching them correctly with one hand. To comfortably handle the smartphone with one hand, we identify other touchable areas that can be accessed easily with one hand. In this study, our research question asks whether utilizing the index finger zone on the back side of the device could compensate for the limited thumb space on the front screen. To explore our research question, we conducted two experiments. Regarding the method of our study, we gave several tasks to the participants in various situations using a smartphone. The results of this study show that an uncomfortable zone exists on the front screen when people perform specific tasks with a thumb. In conclusion, the uncomfortable zone on the front screen could be complemented by utilizing the index finger zone on the back side of the smartphone.
  • Craig O'Neil (University of Strathclyde, UK), Mark Dunlop (University of Strathclyde, UK), Andrew Kerr (University of Strathclyde, UK)
  • Supporting Sit-To-Stand Rehabilitation Using Smartphone Sensors and Arduino Haptic Feedback Modules
    • The aim of this project is to design and build a system to aid patients in their rehabilitation after suffering a stroke. A stroke is one of the most serious conditions that an individual can suffer from, and the rehabilitation is often a long and difficult process. For many with movement effects, the sit-to-stand exercise is an important step in rehabilitation. The focus of this on-going project is to create a system to assist sit-to-stand rehabilitation through the use of haptic feedback on balance. In this poster we present our initial prototype using standard smartphone accelerometers linked wirelessly to Arduino based vibration feedback modules mounted on the patients'legs. Initial feedback on the prototype is promising.
  • Jose A. Gallud (University of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain), Ricardo Tesoriero (University of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain)
  • Smartphone Notifications: A Study on the Sound to Soundless Tendency
    • Notifications are the mechanism that mobile applications employ to make a user know that a new message, email, call or similar has been received. Notifications can produce a sound, a vibration or modify the icon app in some way. They may force us to change the task we are doing, interrupting us and having a negative effect to our work. Before defining a cause-effect relation between notifications and their impact on the user’s current task, first we have to study how users manage notifications. This paper describes the results of a survey on how users react when they re- ceive a notification. The results of this descriptive research might show how people are moving from sound to visual notifications, which reflects the ability of people to adopt new technology.
  • Charlie Pinder (University of Birmingham, UK), Russell Beale (University of Birmingham, UK), Robert Hendley (University of Birmingham, UK)
  • Subliminal Priming of Nonconscious Goals on Smartphones
    • We present a theoretical justification for and design of an experiment to explore the use of subliminal priming of nonconscious goals on smartphones to achieve behaviour change.
  • James Wen (Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden) , Ayça Ünlüer (Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden)
  • Fun, Cool...and Awkward: Preliminary Reactions to Cooperative Photography
    • Cooperative photography allows strangers to collaborate in a shared image capture activity. However, it may be challenging for the collaborating parties to attain the necessary degree of synchronized coordination in the image capturing process since they would need to establish visual contact but, as strangers, may not even recognize each other. An exploratory study of Yousies, a cooperative photography prototype, revealed asymmetries in the user experiences with respect to usage strategy, patience, and motivating factors that can be applied to the interface design of such collocated collaborative applications.
  • Yomna Abdelrahman (University of Stuttgart, Germany), Mariam Hassib (University of Stuttgart, Germany), Maria Marquez (University of Stuttgart, Germany), Markus Funk (University of Stuttgart, Germany), Albrecht Schmidt (University of Stuttgart, Germany)
  • Implicit Engagement Detection for Interactive Museums Using Brain-Computer Interfaces
    • A rich museum experience is one that is engaging, educating and enjoyable to the visitors, such experiences can only be achieved by personalizing and enriching the museum experience according to the visitor’s state. Neural signals from the brain can provide information about the affective and cognitive state of the person implicitly. With the rise of commercial Brain-Computer Interface devices, this technology can be utilized in extracting information to adapt various experiences to the state of the person. We propose a concept and preliminary study which uses brain signals from commercial grade Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) devices to implicitly detect museum visitors' engagement in the exhibited objects. Our concept and output of the study envision an experience where real time feedback based on visitors engagement is provided and the whole museum experience is tailored to each visitor's taste. In future work, we aim to gain external validity by testing our prototype in a museum setting.
  • Paul Strohmeier (Queen's University, Canada), Jesse Burstyn (Queen's University, Canada), Roel Vertegaal (Queen's University, Canada)
  • Effects of Display Sizes on a Scrolling Task using a Cylindrical Smartwatch
    • With a growing interest in wrist-worn devices, research has typically focused on expanding the available interaction area for smartwatches. In this paper, we instead investigate how different display sizes influence task performance, while maintaining a consistent input area. We conducted an experiment in which users completed a scrolling task using a small display, a large display, and a cylindrical display wrapped around the wrist. We found that the large and cylindrical displays resulted in faster task performances than the small display. We also found that the cylindrical display removed constraints on the participants' body pose, suggesting that cylindrical displays have unique benefits for mobile interactions.
  • Shimin Feng (University of Glasgow, UK), Graham Wilson (University of Glasgow, UK), Stephen Brewster (University of Glasgow, UK), Alexander Ng (University of Glasgow, UK)
  • Investigating Pressure-based Interactions with Mobile Phones While Walking and Encumbered
    • In encumbered (e.g. carrying shopping bags) and walking situations, interacting with mobile phones is physically demanding and leads to poor input performance. This paper presents two user studies which investigate the effectiveness of using pressure as an alternative input modality to touch when using mobile phones while encumbered and walking. Force-sensing resistors (FSR) were placed around the edges of a mobile phone to provide multiple pressure points to execute onscreen spreading, pinching, rotating and dragging single handedly. Experimental results showed that it is possible that encumbrance had no significant effect on pressure-based targeting performance. Initial comparisons with direct touch suggests that spreading, pinching and rotating were performed slower and less accurately with pressure input, while dragging is much more accurate than touch as the expense of slower selection time. In general, our preliminary findings show promise with using pressure to facilitate one-handed touchless interactions with handheld devices in multitasking encumbered contexts.
  • Soonmo Kwon (POSTECH, Republic of Korea), Seungjae Oh (POSTECH, Republic of Korea), Kyudong Park (POSTECH, Republic of Korea), Seyoung Kim (POSTECH, Republic of Korea), Hyojeong So (POSTECH, Republic of Korea)
  • Children as Participatory Designers of a New Type of Social Learning Application
    • In recent years, Participatory Design (PD) has emerged as an important design methodology to engage end-users in various phases of design processes, for better understanding about users’ perspectives in situated contexts. In this paper, we discuss how to design and structure a participatory design workshop with children, especially in the situation to elicit ideas, knowledge, and values for user experiences that children are not familiar with or have little prior experiences. Our approach to structure a PD workshop is to embed a pre-activity where children can have simulated experiences in a situated context. In a main-activity, children engaged in creating game scenarios with gamification strategies through the layered elaboration technique. In discussion, we highlight two tensions observed in the PD process: (a) the tension in coupling pre-activity and main-activity from scaffolding perspectives, and (b) the tension in idea ownership and time factor.